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// Copyright 2013 The Chromium Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style license that can be
// found in the LICENSE file.
// This file defines utility functions for working with strings.
#include <ctype.h>
#include <stdarg.h> // va_list
#include <stddef.h>
#include <stdint.h>
#include <string>
#include <vector>
#include "base/compiler_specific.h"
#include "base/strings/string_piece.h" // For implicit conversions.
#include "build/build_config.h"
// On Android, bionic's stdio.h defines an snprintf macro when being built with
// clang. Undefine it here so it won't collide with base::snprintf().
#undef snprintf
namespace base {
// C standard-library functions that aren't cross-platform are provided as
// "base::...", and their prototypes are listed below. These functions are
// then implemented as inline calls to the platform-specific equivalents in the
// platform-specific headers.
// Wrapper for vsnprintf that always null-terminates and always returns the
// number of characters that would be in an untruncated formatted
// string, even when truncation occurs.
int vsnprintf(char* buffer, size_t size, const char* format, va_list arguments)
// Some of these implementations need to be inlined.
// We separate the declaration from the implementation of this inline
// function just so the PRINTF_FORMAT works.
inline int snprintf(char* buffer,
size_t size,
_Printf_format_string_ const char* format,
...) PRINTF_FORMAT(3, 4);
inline int snprintf(char* buffer,
size_t size,
_Printf_format_string_ const char* format,
...) {
va_list arguments;
va_start(arguments, format);
int result = vsnprintf(buffer, size, format, arguments);
return result;
// BSD-style safe and consistent string copy functions.
// Copies |src| to |dst|, where |dst_size| is the total allocated size of |dst|.
// Copies at most |dst_size|-1 characters, and always NULL terminates |dst|, as
// long as |dst_size| is not 0. Returns the length of |src| in characters.
// If the return value is >= dst_size, then the output was truncated.
// NOTE: All sizes are in number of characters, NOT in bytes.
size_t strlcpy(char* dst, const char* src, size_t dst_size);
// ASCII-specific tolower. The standard library's tolower is locale sensitive,
// so we don't want to use it here.
inline char ToLowerASCII(char c) {
return (c >= 'A' && c <= 'Z') ? (c + ('a' - 'A')) : c;
// ASCII-specific toupper. The standard library's toupper is locale sensitive,
// so we don't want to use it here.
inline char ToUpperASCII(char c) {
return (c >= 'a' && c <= 'z') ? (c + ('A' - 'a')) : c;
// Converts the given string to it's ASCII-lowercase equivalent.
std::string ToLowerASCII(StringPiece str);
// Converts the given string to it's ASCII-uppercase equivalent.
std::string ToUpperASCII(StringPiece str);
// Functor for case-insensitive ASCII comparisons for STL algorithms like
// std::search.
// Note that a full Unicode version of this functor is not possible to write
// because case mappings might change the number of characters, depend on
// context (combining accents), and require handling UTF-16. If you need
// proper Unicode support, use base::i18n::ToLower/FoldCase and then just
// use a normal operator== on the result.
template<typename Char> struct CaseInsensitiveCompareASCII {
bool operator()(Char x, Char y) const {
return ToLowerASCII(x) == ToLowerASCII(y);
// Like strcasecmp for case-insensitive ASCII characters only. Returns:
// -1 (a < b)
// 0 (a == b)
// 1 (a > b)
// (unlike strcasecmp which can return values greater or less than 1/-1). For
// full Unicode support, use base::i18n::ToLower or base::i18h::FoldCase
// and then just call the normal string operators on the result.
int CompareCaseInsensitiveASCII(StringPiece a, StringPiece b);
// Equality for ASCII case-insensitive comparisons. For full Unicode support,
// use base::i18n::ToLower or base::i18h::FoldCase and then compare with either
// == or !=.
bool EqualsCaseInsensitiveASCII(StringPiece a, StringPiece b);
// Contains the set of characters representing whitespace in the corresponding
// encoding. Null-terminated. The ASCII versions are the whitespaces as defined
// by HTML5, and don't include control characters.
extern const char kWhitespaceASCII[];
// Replaces characters in |replace_chars| from anywhere in |input| with
// |replace_with|. Each character in |replace_chars| will be replaced with
// the |replace_with| string. Returns true if any characters were replaced.
// |replace_chars| must be null-terminated.
// NOTE: Safe to use the same variable for both |input| and |output|.
bool ReplaceChars(const std::string& input,
const StringPiece& replace_chars,
const std::string& replace_with,
std::string* output);
enum TrimPositions {
TRIM_LEADING = 1 << 0,
// Removes characters in |trim_chars| from the beginning and end of |input|.
// The 8-bit version only works on 8-bit characters, not UTF-8.
// It is safe to use the same variable for both |input| and |output| (this is
// the normal usage to trim in-place).
bool TrimString(const std::string& input,
StringPiece trim_chars,
std::string* output);
// StringPiece versions of the above. The returned pieces refer to the original
// buffer.
StringPiece TrimString(StringPiece input,
const StringPiece& trim_chars,
TrimPositions positions);
// Trims any whitespace from either end of the input string.
// The StringPiece versions return a substring referencing the input buffer.
// The ASCII versions look only for ASCII whitespace.
// The std::string versions return where whitespace was found.
// NOTE: Safe to use the same variable for both input and output.
TrimPositions TrimWhitespaceASCII(const std::string& input,
TrimPositions positions,
std::string* output);
// Returns true if the specified string matches the criteria. How can a wide
// string be 8-bit or UTF8? It contains only characters that are < 256 (in the
// first case) or characters that use only 8-bits and whose 8-bit
// representation looks like a UTF-8 string (the second case).
// Note that IsStringUTF8 checks not only if the input is structurally
// valid but also if it doesn't contain any non-character codepoint
// (e.g. U+FFFE). It's done on purpose because all the existing callers want
// to have the maximum 'discriminating' power from other encodings. If
// there's a use case for just checking the structural validity, we have to
// add a new function for that.
// IsStringASCII assumes the input is likely all ASCII, and does not leave early
// if it is not the case.
bool IsStringUTF8(const StringPiece& str);
bool IsStringASCII(const StringPiece& str);
// Reserves enough memory in |str| to accommodate |length_with_null| characters,
// sets the size of |str| to |length_with_null - 1| characters, and returns a
// pointer to the underlying contiguous array of characters. This is typically
// used when calling a function that writes results into a character array, but
// the caller wants the data to be managed by a string-like object. It is
// convenient in that is can be used inline in the call, and fast in that it
// avoids copying the results of the call from a char* into a string.
// |length_with_null| must be at least 2, since otherwise the underlying string
// would have size 0, and trying to access &((*str)[0]) in that case can result
// in a number of problems.
// Internally, this takes linear time because the resize() call 0-fills the
// underlying array for potentially all
// (|length_with_null - 1| * sizeof(string_type::value_type)) bytes. Ideally we
// could avoid this aspect of the resize() call, as we expect the caller to
// immediately write over this memory, but there is no other way to set the size
// of the string, and not doing that will mean people who access |str| rather
// than str.c_str() will get back a string of whatever size |str| had on entry
// to this function (probably 0).
char* WriteInto(std::string* str, size_t length_with_null);
} // namespace base
#if defined(OS_WIN)
#include "base/strings/string_util_win.h"
#elif defined(OS_POSIX)
#include "base/strings/string_util_posix.h"
#error Define string operations appropriately for your platform